Gaping: Sharks use gaping to threaten and express irritation, emerging from the water with an open jaw, resembling a yawn.
Tail Slaps: Sharks communicate dominance or defend food by slapping their tails. Indicates messages like "Back away, this food is mine" or "I'm coming to take your food."
Fin Biting: Male sharks bite females as part of a courtship ritual to attract attention and initiate mating.
Pectoral Fin Drops: Sharks drop pectoral fins and arch their backs to communicate irritation and signal a threat.
Back Arching or Hunched Back: Indicates a shark's need for space and a warning to back off. If pursued persists, the shark may resort to defensive attacks, especially when a diver enters its territory.
Defensive Attacks: Sharks often exhibit an agonistic display before defensive attacks. Involves head shaking, funny swimming with a hunched back, and side fins down while snout pointed up.
Communication Patterns: Sharks rely on body language and swimming patterns to convey messages, showcasing a complex and nuanced communication system.