Urinary tract infections or other health problems can cause discomfort and lead to inappropriate urination.
Dirty boxes, unfavorable locations, or the wrong litter type may deter cats from using the box.
Changes in the environment or household dynamics can lead to stress and result in marking outside the box.
Cats may pee outside the box to assert territory when threatened by other cats.
Cats may continue peeing in a spot where they've done it before, creating a recurring issue.
Negative experiences, like pain or discomfort, can cause cats to avoid the litter box.