Fungal Nail Infections: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Fungal nail infections, also known as onychomycosis, are a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. While often not a serious medical concern, they can be unsightly and cause discomfort. Well, is a common condition that causes the nails to become thick, discolored, and brittle. The infection is caused by a fungus that grows under the nail, and it is more common in toenails than in fingernails.

In this blog, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for fungal nail infections, as well as provide tips for prevention.

What causes fungal nail infections?

Fungal nail infections are typically caused by the overgrowth of fungi, such as dermatophytes, yeasts, or molds. These organisms thrive in warm and moist environments, making nails susceptible to infection. Common risk factors include:

  • Poor foot hygiene: Not keeping your feet clean and dry increases the likelihood of fungal growth.
  • Damaged nails: Cracked or damaged nails provide an entry point for fungi.
  • Sweaty feet: Excessive sweating can create a moist environment ideal for fungal growth.
  • Walking barefoot in public areas: Public pools, locker rooms, and showers can harbor fungi that can infect the nails.

Major Factors Affecting the Risk of Fungal Nail Infections

There are a number of factors that can increase the risk of developing a fungal nail infection, including:

  • Diabetes: People with diabetes are more likely to develop fungal nail infections because they have a higher risk of developing infections in general.
  • Age: Fungal nail infections are more common in older adults.
  • Immune system problems: People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer, are more likely to develop fungal nail infections.
  • Moist environments: Fungi thrive in moist environments, so people who work in wet environments, such as swimming pools or gyms, are more likely to develop fungal nail infections.
  • Trauma to the nail: Trauma to the nail, such as from a sports injury, can increase the risk of developing a fungal nail infection.

Related: Nail Abnormalities: Common Nail Disorders and Their Causes

What are the symptoms of fungal nail infections?

Fungal nail infections can manifest in various ways, and symptoms may vary from person to person. Some common signs of a fungal nail infection include:

  • Thickened nails: Infected nails often become thick and brittle.
  • Discoloration: Nails may turn yellow, brown, or white.
  • Crumbling or flaking: Infected nails can become crumbly and start to flake off.
  • Distorted shape: Nails may become misshapen or develop ridges.
  • Foul odor: In some cases, an unpleasant odor may emanate from the infected nails.

If you notice any of these symptoms, it is important to see a doctor to get a diagnosis and treatment.

How to treat fungal nail infections?

Treating fungal nail infections can be a lengthy process, and it’s essential to start treatment as early as possible. Here are some common treatment options:

  1. Topical antifungal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription antifungal creams, ointments, or nail lacquers can be applied directly to the infected nails.
  2. Oral antifungal medications: In severe cases or when topical treatments are ineffective, oral antifungal medications may be prescribed. These medications help in treating the infection from within.
  3. Laser therapy: Certain types of fungal nail infections can be treated with laser therapy, which targets and destroys the fungi.
  4. Nail removal: In severe cases or when other treatments fail, surgical removal of the infected nail may be necessary to allow a new, healthy nail to grow.

Prevention tips for fungal nail infections

Prevention is always better than cure. Here are some tips to reduce the risk of fungal nail infections:

  1. Practice good foot hygiene: Keep your feet clean and dry, especially after swimming or sweating.
  2. Wear proper footwear: Choose shoes made of breathable materials and avoid tight-fitting shoes or those with poor ventilation.
  3. Protect your feet in public areas: Use shower shoes or sandals in public pools, locker rooms, and communal showers.
  4. Trim nails properly: Trim nails straight across and avoid cutting them too short or rounding the edges.
  5. Avoid sharing personal items: Do not share nail clippers, files, or socks with others to prevent the spread of fungi.


Fungal nail infections can be bothersome, but with proper care and treatment, they can be effectively managed. If you suspect a fungal nail infection, consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. Remember, maintaining good foot hygiene and taking preventive measures can go a long way in keeping your nails healthy and fungus-free.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this blog is for informational purposes only and should not be considered medical advice. Always consult with a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis

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