Foot or ankle tendonitis, also known as tendinitis, occurs when a tendon in the foot or ankle becomes inflamed.
Tendons are strong, cord-like tissues that connect muscles to bones. The repetitive motion in the ankle joint makes it one of the most common areas for developing tendonitis.
This condition is a frequent cause of foot or ankle pain, typically arising from injury or overuse.
Symptoms include pain, swelling, and stiffness, which may worsen with activity and improve with rest. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for proper management and recovery. In this article, we will explore the causes, prevention, and when to seek medical attention for foot and ankle tendonitis.
Types of tendonitis of the foot or ankle
Tendonitis can affect various areas of the foot and ankle, leading to specific types of pain and inflammation. Some common examples include:
- Peroneal tendonitis: This causes pain and inflammation along the outer edge of the heel.
- Achilles tendonitis: It results in heel and calf pain, particularly felt during walking or running, extending up to the middle of the calf.
- Extensor tendonitis: This rare type of ankle tendonitis leads to pain on the top of the foot.
- Anterior tibial tendonitis: It causes pain on the front of the foot, often experienced when walking downstairs or on sloped surfaces.
- Posterior tibial tendonitis: This condition involves pain and inflammation on the inner part of the ankle, which can contribute to a flat foot.
The affected areas of the foot and ankle may vary, including the posterior (back of the ankle), medial (side along the big toe), lateral (side along the pinky toe), and dorsal (top of the foot).
Rest and home care are usually sufficient for healing these injuries within a few weeks.
Causes of tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Foot and ankle tendonitis is commonly caused by overuse, particularly in sports or jobs involving repetitive movement or running.
Other factors that can contribute to tendonitis include injuries to the foot or ankle tendons, rheumatic diseases like gout or arthritis, and foot or ankle mechanics affected by flat feet or high arches.
Additionally, obesity can place extra stress on the foot and ankle tendons. Wearing worn-out shoes that provide insufficient support to the feet can also contribute to the development of tendonitis.
Risk factors for tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Certain factors increase the risk of developing tendonitis in the foot or ankle, including:
- Participation in sports involving repetitive movements or ankle overuse, such as running.
- Age: Individuals over the age of 40 are more susceptible to foot or ankle tendonitis.
- Gender: Men are more likely to develop tendonitis in the foot or ankle.
- Weight: Being overweight increases the risk of developing tendonitis in the foot or ankle.
- Wearing worn-out shoes that lack proper foot support can contribute to tendonitis.
- History of previous injuries to the tendons in the foot or ankle.
Symptoms of tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Foot or ankle tendonitis manifests as localized pain, swelling, and stiffness, the most common symptoms.
Initial movement often triggers a sharp or burning pain, notably around the affected tendon, which tends to subside over time but often reemerges as you continue to put weight on the foot or ankle.
Foot shape may also be affected in cases like posterior tibial tendonitis, leading to the collapse of the foot arch due to the tendon’s crucial role in supporting and stabilizing the inner arch.
Swelling isn’t immediate, taking some time to develop into a soft, tender lump over the tendon, typically seen in Achilles Tendonitis.
Furthermore, the foot and ankle might become stiff, limiting pain-free movement.
These symptoms may fluctuate depending on the location and severity of the tendonitis. If these symptoms persist or worsen despite rest, it’s crucial to consult a primary care doctor, a podiatrist, or an orthopedic specialist.
Diagnosis of tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Diagnosing foot or ankle tendonitis involves a comprehensive physical examination by your primary care provider, podiatrist, orthopedist, or sports medicine physician and a medical history review.
If the injury appears severe, your healthcare provider may order an X-ray or MRI to discern potential fractures, calcifications, or tendon ruptures, which would necessitate alternative treatments.
These imaging tests can reveal conditions like calcification, which is a buildup of calcium in the tendon, or a torn tendon. Understanding the origin of the pain is crucial for guiding treatment.
Treatments for tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Treatments for foot or ankle tendonitis depend on the injury’s severity, varying from rest and self-care measures to surgical interventions.
The initial response to tendonitis symptoms is typically the R.I.C.E method, which entails rest, ice, compression, and elevation.
This approach involves limiting activity, alternating cold and heat applications, applying a compression bandage to reduce swelling and immobilizing the ankle, and keeping the foot elevated.
If symptoms persist despite these measures, seeking medical attention is essential.
Healthcare providers might recommend a walking boot for immobilization and weight distribution, orthotics like arch supports or inserts for foot positioning, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain and swelling.
Other treatments can include physical therapy for strengthening and stretching, steroid injections, ultrasound-guided interventions, and in severe cases, tendon transfer surgery.
Additionally, it’s crucial to avoid activities that aggravate the condition and to employ exercises and orthotics if foot abnormalities, like flat feet, are contributing to the tendonitis. The specific treatment protocol will depend on the affected tendon.
Recovery from tendonitis of the ankle or foot
Healing from tendonitis typically takes time and patience. If the patient doesn’t adhere to the doctor’s directives to rest the affected area, the recovery period can potentially be prolonged.